Motorcycle Club

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A motorcycle club (MC) is an organized club of dedicated motorcyclists who join together for camaraderie, strength of numbers, companionship, education, rider training, and socialization.



Motorcycle clubs vary a great deal in their objectives and organizations.

Mainstream motorcycle clubs or associations typically have elected officers and directors, annual dues, and a regular publication. They may also sponsor annual or more frequent "rallies" where members can socialize and get to know each other. Some, such as BMW MOA and BMW RA annually publish in book form lists of members that can be used by touring motorcyclists needing assistance.

There are a great many motorcycle riding clubs, including those sponsored by various manufacturers, such as the Harley Owners Group and the Honda Riders Club of America. Large national independent motorcycle clubs, such as BMW Motorcycle Owners of America, BMW Riders Association, the STAR Touring and Riding Association, and the Gold Wing Road Riders Association (GWRRA), are abundant. Other riding clubs exist for a specific purpose, such as the Patriot Guard Riders, who provide funeral escorts for military veterans.

The American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) is the largest American motorcyclist organization. It serves as an umbrella organization for local clubs and sporting events. As of March, 2006, the AMA counts 269,884 active members and many chartered clubs.[1]

Clubs can include police, military, and firefighter clubs (or a combination thereof) such as the Iron Pigs MC, Steelhorse Posse MC, Iron Warriors MC, Shamrocks MC, Blue Knights MC, Defenders MC, Red Knights MC, Choir Boys MC, Knights Paladin MC, Dragonslayers FF MC, and Wind and Fire MC. Some Clubs claim to be "Law Enforcement Motorcycle Clubs" (LEMC's). An authentic LEMC consists of at least 75% Law Enforcement members[citation needed] and every Officer in the Club is a Law Enforcement Officer.

Various military and veterans MCs include the Armed Forces of America MC, U.S. Military Vets MC, the Vietnam Vets/Legacy Vets MC, the Proud Few MC, the Leathernecks MC, American Badgers MC, Veterans of Vietnam MC, Rolling Thunder MC, and the Buffalo Soldiers MC. Still other MCs include the Boozefighters and the San Francisco MC. One online directory of MCs lists 216 clubs.[2]

“Biker” clubs

In some "biker" clubs, as part of becoming a full member, an individual must pass a vote of the membership and swear some level of allegiance to the club. Some clubs has a unique club patch (or patches) adorned with the term "MC" that are worn on the rider's vest, known as colors. The oldest motorcycle clubs in the U.S. are the Yonkers MC, founded in 1903, the San Francisco MC, founded 1904, and the Oakland MC.

Hells Angels MC New York City clubhouse

The typical internal organization of a motorcycle club consists of a president, vice president, treasurer, secretary, road captain, and sergeant-at-arms.[3] Localized groups of a single, large MC are called chapters, and the first chapter established for an MC is referred to as the mother chapter. The president of the mother chapter serves as the president of the entire MC, and sets club policy on a variety of issues.

In these clubs, some amount of hazing may occur during the prospecting period, ranging from the mandatory performance of menial labor tasks for full patch members to sophomoric pranks, and, in the case of some outlaw motorcycle clubs, acts of civil disobedience or crime. During this time, the prospect may wear the club name on the back of their vest, but not the full logo, though this practice may vary from club to club. To become a full member, the prospect or probate must be voted on by the rest of the full club members. Successful admission usually requires more than a simple majority, and some clubs may reject a prospect or a probate for a single dissenting vote. A formal induction follows, in which the new member affirms his loyalty to the club and its members. The final logo patch is then awarded. Full members are often referred to as "full patch members" and the step of attaining full membership can be referred to as "being patched".

Most of these one-percenter MCs do not allow women to become full-patch members, but women can hold special status with the club. Membership in what authorities term 'Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs' is often racist as well as sexist,[4] and membership in the Hells Angels is closed to African-Americans[5] [6], and Hispanics[7] which have led to creation of rival gangs such as the Bandidos and the Mongols Motorcycle Club. MC members are not usually referred to by their given names, but instead refer to each other by nicknames, or road names, sometimes even displaying their road name on the club vest. Whether or not this practice was carried over from the military aviation history of colorful pilot callsigns is not known.

Larger motorcycle clubs for this type often acquire real estate for use as a clubhouse or private compound. These clubs often have security features such as closed-circuit television monitors, motion detector lights, and barbed wire-topped fences. As well, the clubhouse or compound walls may be reinforced materials such as plate steel or kevlar to provide ballistic protection.

OPP Sgt. Dave Rector positions Bandidos vest seized in raids near Iona Station prior to a news conference in London, Ontario. Note MC and 1% patches.

The primary visual identification of a member of an MC is the vest adorned with a specific large club patch or patches, predominantly located in the middle of the back. The patch(es) will contain a club logo, the name of the club, and the letters "MC", and a possible state, province, or other chapter identification. This garment and the patches themselves are referred to as the "colors", or, sometimes, "cuts", a term taken from the early practice of cutting the collars and/or sleeves from a denim or leather jacket. Many non-outlaw motorcycle riding clubs (as opposed to MCs) such as Harley Owners Group (HOG) also wear patches on the back of their jackets or vests, but the letters "MC" are nowhere to be seen on such patches. This is an important distinction, for only true Motorcycle Clubs sport the "MC" moniker. The 1% patch is what distinguishes the outlaw Motorcycle Clubs from normal Motorcycle Clubs. Motorcycle Associations or Rider Clubs are not allowed to wear the MC patch.

The colors worn by members of these clubs will either consist of a one-piece patch , two-piece patch,  or a three piece patch. The Three Piece Patch Set consists of the club logo and the top and bottom patches, usually crescent shaped, which are referred to as rockers. The number and arrangement of patches is somewhat indicative of the nature of the club. All true Motorcycle Clubs will have a three-piece patch arrangement. Not all (or even most) clubs sporting a three-piece patch are one-percenters, however. The club patches always remain property of the club itself, not the member, and only members are allowed to wear the club's colors. A member must closely guard their colors, for allowing ones colors to fall into the hands of an outsider is an act of disgrace and may result in loss of membership in a club, or some other punishment. Contrary to recent popular belief, a 5 Piece Patch Set does not exist. The separate designation patch (MC, VC, SBR, etc) is sometimes called the CUBE Patch. Some clubs do not count it as part of the color set.

Law enforcement agencies have confiscated colors and other club paraphernalia of these types of clubs when they raid a clubhouse or the home of an MC member, and they often display these items at press conferences.[8] These items are then used at trial to support prosecution assertions that MC members perform criminal acts on behalf of their club. Courts have found that the probative value of such items is far outweighed by their prejudicial effects on the defense. [9]

One Percenters

Members of motorcycle clubs are often viewed in a negative light by traditional society. This perception has been fueled by the movies, popular culture, and highly publicized incidents. One of the earliest and most notorious of these occurred in Hollister, California in 1947[10] [11] and is now dubbed the Hollister riot. Whether or not an actual riot occurred is debatable, but there was a motorcycle rally in Hollister from July 4 to July 6 of that year that was attended by about 4000 people. Several newspaper articles were written that, according to some attendees, sensationalized the event and Life magazine ran an article and a staged photograph of an intoxicated subject on a motorcycle parked in a bar. The film The Wild One, starring Marlon Brando, was inspired by the event, and it became the first in a series of movies that depicted bikers and members of motorcycle clubs in this stereotypical manner. The press asked the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) to comment on the Hollister incident and their response[citation needed] was that 99% of motorcyclists were law-abiding citizens, and the last one percent were outlaws. Thus was born the term, "one percenter".

During the 1940s and 1950s, at rallies and gatherings sponsored by the AMA, prizes were awarded for nicest club uniform, prettiest motorcycle, and so forth. Some clubs, however, rejected the clean-cut image and adopted the "one-percenter" moniker, even going so far as to create a diamond shaped 1% patch to wear on their vests as a badge of honor. One-percenter clubs point out that the term "one-percenter" simply means that they are committed to "biking and brotherhood", where riding is not just a weekend activity, but a way of living. These clubs assert that local and national law enforcement agencies have co-opted the term to paint them as criminals. Sonny Barger and others went even further than wearing the rhombus-shaped patch on their colors and had the symbol tattooed on their upper bodies. In his autobiography, Mr. Barger recalls how, early on (1950's), there was an informal agreement amongst the one-percenters, regardless of gang affiliation, with certain guidelines such as "no stealing" (from each other), no "rat-packing" (on fellow one-percenters) and so forth. However, Sonny and his fellow members soon quit the "one-percenters club" because, as he describes it in his book, they felt that the other self-described one-percenters were not of equal status to the Hells Angels, and since a Hells Angel's primary allegiance needed to be to his fellow Angels, there was no need or desire for any such further affiliation with this self-described group.[12]

Ninety-Nine Percenters

While one-percenters garner much publicity for their activities and misdeeds, there are many, many more motorcycle clubs and bikers that instead identify as ninety-nine percenters, that is to say, not one-percenters. Indeed, as of March, 2006, the American Motorcyclist Association, an organization that is the very antithesis of one-percenters, counts 269,884 active members and many chartered clubs.[13]

99%er MCs include police, military, and firefighter clubs (or a combination thereof) such as the Wheelmen LEMC, the Iron Pigs MC, Steelhorse Posse MC, Iron Warriors MC, Shamrocks MC, Blue Knights MC, Red Knights MC, Choir Boys MC, Knights Paladin MC, Dragonslayers FF MC, and Wind and Fire MC. Some Clubs claim to be "Law Enforcement Motorcycle Clubs" (LEMC's) An authentic LEMC consists of at least 75% Law Enforcement members and every Officer in the Club is a Law Enforcement Officer.

Recently, however, the status of LEMC's has seen much debate. Some LEMC's "emulate" 1% clubs both in their practices and their creeds.

Various military and veterans MCs include the Armed Forces of America MC, U.S. Military Vets MC, the Vietnam Vets/Legacy Vets MC, the Proud Few MC, the Leathernecks MC, American Badgers MC, Veterans of Vietnam MC, Rolling Thunder MC, and the Buffalo Soldiers MC. Still other MCs include the Boozefighters, SBFreaks and the San Francisco MC. One online directory of MCs lists 216 clubs.[14]

In addition to the many independent and "outlaw" MCs, there are a great many motorcycle riding clubs, including those sponsored by various manufacturers, such as the Harley Owners Group, Iron Indian Riders Association, Honda Riders Club of America, BMW Motorcycle Owners of America, and several others. Other riding clubs exist for a specific purpose, such as the Patriot Guard Riders, who provide funeral escorts for military veterans.

Furthermore, some groups define themselves as "associations". These consist of persons from all backgrounds, to include law enforcement, fire and military, but are open to anyone. Although associations do parallel "MC" standards such as established by laws and prospecting members, they do not use MC on their colors. Associations try and maintain a friendly atmosphere with all clubs 1% or 99% but will never form an alliance with any club. In most cases associations will try to fall in line with "local biker politics" as long as they stay within the confines of the law. The association will err on the side of the law in all cases, especially those who have law enforcement as association officers. Examples of associations are South West Desert Riders El Paso TX.

Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs

Anthropologist Daniel R. Wolf, who wrote his PhD thesis based on original research done during his membership with the Rebels MC in Canada, defined an outlaw motorcycle club as, "technically," ... "a club that is not registered with the American Motorcycle Association (AMA) or the Canadian Motorcycle Association (CMA), which are the respective governing bodies for the sport of motorcycling in the United States and Canada. The AMA and CMA are themselves affiliated with the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM), the international coordinating body for motorcycling whose headquarters are located in Paris, France."[15] It is significant to note that this is a much broader definition than both the term "one-percenter", and the one used by law enforcement agencies in describing what they now refer to as outlaw motorcycle gangs.

Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs

Both the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Criminal Intelligence Service Canada have designated four MCs as Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMGs), which are the Pagans, Hells Angels, Outlaws MC, and Bandidos,[16][17] known as the "Big Four".[18] These four have a large enough national impact to be prosecuted under the Federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations statute.[19] The California Attorney General also lists the Mongols as an outlaw motorcycle gang.[20][21] The FBI asserts that OMGs support themselves primarily through drug dealing, trafficking in stolen goods, and extortion, and that they fight over territory and the illegal drug trade.[22] The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Gazette, quoting from the Provincial Court of Manitoba, defines these groups as: "Any group of motorcycle enthusiasts who have voluntarily made a commitment to band together and abide by their organizations' rigorous rules enforced by violence, who engage in activities that bring them and their club into serious conflict with society and the law".[23]

The FBI asserts that OMG's collect $1 billion in illegal income annually[24][25] and that street gangs, prison gangs, and OMGs are the primary retail distributors of illegal drugs in the US,[26][27] with OMGs dominating US meth trade distribution.[28][29] In 1985[30] a three-year, eleven-state FBI operation named Roughrider culminated in the largest OMG bust in history, with the confiscation of $2 million worth of illegal drugs, as well as an illegal arsenal of weapons, ranging from Uzi submachine guns to antitank weapons.[31] In October, 2008, the FBI announced the end of a 6-month undercover operation by agents into the narcotics trafficking by the Mongols Motorcycle Gang. The bust went down with 160 search warrants and 110 arrest warrants. The Mongols, a latino gang formed due to the Hell's Angels refusal to admit hispanics, was named after the Asian warriors, and has had chapters become subject to rule by the Mexican Mafia prison gang. Reports say many Mongols were admitted from lesser Mexican Mafia controlled street gangs, even without motorcycles, to assist in the drug trade between Mexico, California, and Canada. [32]

Canada, especially, has in the past two decades experienced a significant upsurge in crime involving outlaw motorcycle gangs, most notably in what has been dubbed the Quebec Biker war, which has involved more than 150 murders[33] (plus a young bystander killed by an exploding car bomb), 84 bombings, and 130 cases of arson.[34] The increased violence in Canada has been attributed to turf wars over the illegal drug trafficking business, specifically relating to access to the Port of Montreal[35] , but also as the Hells Angels have sought to obtain control of the street level trade from other rival and/or independent gangs in various regions of Canada.[36]

Members and supporters of these clubs insist that illegal activities are isolated occurrences and that they, as a whole, are not criminal organizations. They often compare themselves to police departments, wherein the occasional "bad cop" does not make a police department a criminal organization. One biker website has a news section devoted to "cops gone bad" to support their point of view,[37] and the Hells Angels sponsors charitable events for Toys for Tots. [38]

Relationships between motorcycle clubs

In the United States, many MCs have established state-wide MC confederations. These confederations are composed of MCs who have chapters in the state, and the occasional interested third party organization. The confederation holds periodic meetings on neutral ground, wherein representatives from each club (usually the presidents and vice-presidents, but not always) meet in closed session to resolve disputes between clubs and discuss issues of common interest.

The largest one-percent club tends to dominate the confederation, using their numbers to impose their will on other clubs. Sometimes clubs are forced into, or willingly accept, "support" roles for a one-percent club. Smaller clubs who resist a large one-percent club have been forcibly disbanded, e.g. told to hand over their colors or risk war. [39] With the exception of Law Enforcement Clubs[citation needed] , smaller clubs usually comply, since members of a family club are usually unwilling to risk injury or worse. Another tactic used by one-percent clubs is to force smaller clubs to join the AMA and wear an AMA patch. This is considered an act of shame by some clubs, and a club thus forced may wear an upside-down AMA patch on their colors as a form of protest and to retain their dignity.

Certain large one-percent MCs are rivals with each other and will fight over territory and other issues. In 2002, members of the Mongols MC and the Hells Angels MC had a confrontation in Laughlin, Nevada at the Harrah's Laughlin Casino that left three bikers dead. [40] Another melee, this time between the Hells Angels and the Pagans MC, occurred in February, 2002 at a Hells Angels convention in Long Island, New York. Police reports indicate the Pagans were outraged that the event was held on what they considered their "home turf".[41]

The local COC (Coalition of Clubs) has eliminated most of the inter-club rivalry. Club members tend to be older veterans, and given the cost of ownership of a Harley Dresser type motorcycle, increasingly well to do.

The "big 5" national 1% clubs tend to be territorial. Smaller clubs are allowed to form with the permission of the dominant regional club. Smaller clubs will usually be required to wear a "support" patch on their vests that shows their support for the dominant regional. Certain clubs are exempt from this requirement, such as the police clubs ("Blue Knights") as well as the national "military only" clubs like the "US Military Vets MC".

Certain organizations also sponsor clubs such as "HOG" (Harley Owners Group) and CMA (Christian Motorcycle Association). These are not considered "real" motorcycle clubs and can be easily differentiated from "real" clubs by the lack of "MC" (Motorcycle Club) or "MG" (Motorcycle Gang) on the back of their vests. When a bar or other establishment posts a "No Colors" sign, they are specifically targeting people with the "MC" or "MG" letters on the vest.

The incidence of drug dealing and illegal activities in the vast majority of MC's mirrors the percentage of criminal behaviour in society as a whole. Most clubs are organized as a 501c charitable organization and provide money and support to a variety of charities. Typical events include "poker runs" and '50-50' raffles where a portion of the proceeds are donated to the clubs designated cause. Additionally the clubs provide support services and maintenance for members in the form of trailers, tools, etc.

The clubs also stress safety and rider skills. Most will have a "road captain" that is responsible for safe riding. The members will generally have a pre-run safety check where required equipment, tires, etc are checked. This is both for member safety and prevent giving the police any justification for stopping the pack. Most states have special provisions for "Funerals and Other Processions" that allow the pack as a whole to go through a signal light as long as the first bike entered the intersection legally under the green. Packs tend to ride "high & tight" to prevent other vehicles from attempting to 'bull' into the pack. This type of behaviour by a cage (car) is extremely dangerous to a pack and happens quite often, especially in larger runs (20+ bikes) Organized runs with large numbers will usually include "road guard" bikes who's responsibility is to block intersections and roads to allow the pack to enter/exit the highway or turn as a unit. Biker clubs have long initiations and many 'team building' exercises to foster trust and confidence between members. Someone that has marginal riding skills will be relegated to the back of the pack until their skills are such that they are capable of riding without the risk of 'bumping pegs' with the other riders. Contrary to popular myth, most clubs don't imbibe large amounts of alcohol until the end of the run.

Motorcycle clubs in popular culture

Part of the mystique surrounding MCs has been driven by books, movies and television, beginning with the so-called Hollister riot in 1947, about which two articles appeared in the San Francisco Chronicle, and another in Life Magazine featuring a large staged photograph of an intoxicated subject on a motorcycle parked in a bar.

A series of biker movies followed, beginning with The Wild One, starring Marlon Brando, and culminating with the award-winning Easy Rider, with its iconic Captain America chopper. Many of these were B movies, a staple of 1960s drive-in theaters. In 1966, Hunter S. Thompson (who later started the movement known as gonzo journalism) wrote Hell's Angels: The Strange and Terrible Saga of the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, giving readers their first inside glimpse into the most notorious motorcycle club of all.

The 1969 Altamont Free Concert incident thrust the Hells Angels front and center for the killing of a concert-goer by a Hells Angels member, Alan Passaro, who was, along with other club members, by some reports, providing security for the Rolling Stones at the event. Meredith Hunter, was stabbed multiple times by Passaro and other Hells Angels members. Film evidence later showed that Meredith Hunter was holding a gun. Passaro was charged with murder but was later found to be acting in self-defense and acquitted.

Since Hunter S. Thompson's ground-breaking book, more books have followed, including former Angels president Sonny Barger's, Hell's Angel: The Life and Times of Sonny Barger and the Hell's Angels Motorcycle Club, and, more recently, Edward Winterhalder's account of the Bandidos, Out In Bad Standings; Inside The Bandidos Motorcycle Club. William Queen‘s “Under and Alone: The True Story of the Undercover Agent Who Infiltrated America’s Most Violent Outlaw Motorcycle Gang”

The Discovery Channel has featured looks inside several MCs including the Devil Dolls. The film Beyond the Law is based on the true story of Dan Black, an undercover officer who infiltrated a one-percenter MC. The 2007 Disney film Wild Hogs tells the story of four friends who have an encounter with the fictional Del Fuegos MC. The original script used the Hells Angels, causing the Hells Angels to sue Disney for trademark infringement.[42]

The new FX television series Sons Of Anarchy follows the exploits of the fictional outlaw motorcycle club SAMCRO, or Sons of Anarchy Motorcycle Club Redwood Original.

Ride to Hell is an upcoming video game, set on the West Coast in the 1960s, where the player will live and fight in the early years of the oulaw motorcycle clubs' underworld.

See also


  1. ^ AMA Newsroom: Facts and Figures, retrieved September 10, 2007
  2. ^ Motorcycle Club Index, retrieved September 25, 2007
  3. ^ 1% - Example of Bylaws- Motorcycle Club and Riding Club Education]
  4. ^ Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs-
  5. ^ Gangs in Maryland- University of Maryland
  6. ^ Outlaw Motorcycle Groups- Laurier College
  7. ^ Dozens of outlaw bikers arrested in ATF sting-, Oct 21, 2008
  8. ^ Five charged in murders of eight Bandidos bikers-, June 10, 2006, Retrieved October 10, 2007
  9. ^ The United States Court of Appeals For the Seventh Circuit, Case Nos. 95-2829 and 95-2879; UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JOHN E. IRVIN and THOMAS E. PASTOR, Defendants-Appellants
  10. ^ Dougherty, C.I. (1947-07-05). "Motorcyclists Take Over Town, Many Injured", San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on 24 October 2007. 
  11. ^ Dougherty, C.I. (1947-07-06). "2000 'Gypsycycles' Chug Out of Town and the Natives Sigh 'Never Again'", San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on 24 October 2007. 
  12. ^ Hell's Angel: The Life and Times of Ralph "Sonny" Barger and the Hell's Angels Motorcycle Club [1]
  13. ^ AMA Newsroom: Facts and Figures, retrieved September 10, 2007
  14. ^ Motorcycle Club Index, retrieved September 25, 2007
  15. ^ The Rebels: A Brotherhood of Outlaw Bikers, by Daniel R. Wolf, University of Toronto Press, 1991
  16. ^ FBI Safe Street Violent Crime Initiative - Report Fiscal Year 2000-
  17. ^ 2004 Annual Report- Criminal Intelligence Service Canada,
  18. ^ Motorcycle Gangs- Connecticut Gang Investigators Association
  19. ^ 2004 Annual Report- Criminal Intelligence Service Canada (CISC),
  20. ^ Organized Crime in California - 2004 Annual Report to the Legislature- California Department of Justice
  21. ^ Dozens of outlaw bikers arrested in ATF sting-, October 21, 2008
  22. ^ Organized Crime Investigation- by T. O'Connor, Austin PEA State University
  23. ^ Organized Crime Fact Sheet- Public Safety Canada
  24. ^ The Hells Angels' Devilish Business-, November 30, 1992
  25. ^ Biker Gangs in Canada- CBC News, April 5, 2007
  26. ^ Narcotics Digest, Gangs In The United States- the National Gang Center
  27. ^ Comprehensively Combating Methamphetamine: Impact on Health and the Environment- DEA Deputy Chief Joseph Rannazzisi, congressional testimony on October 20, 2005
  28. ^ The Hells Angels' Devilish Business- by Andrew E. Serwer, Fortune Magazine, November 30, 1992
  29. ^ Sonny Barger Kicks Starts Life as a Free Man by Violating Parole- by Philip Martin, Phoenix New Times, December 2, 1992.
  30. ^ Sonny Barger Kicks Starts Life as a Free Man by Violating Parole- by Philip Martin, Phoenix New Times, December 2, 1992
  31. ^ Busting Hell's Angels- Time Magazine, May 13, 1985
  32. ^ Dozens of Outlaw Bikers Arrested in ATF Sting.-, October 21, 2008
  33. ^ Was Noye case witness killed by Hell's Angels?- Guardian Observer, October 15, 2000
  34. ^ Organized Crime Fact Sheet- Public Safety Canada
  35. ^ The Biker Trials: Bringing Down the Hells Angels, by Paul Cherry, ECW Press, 2005
  36. ^ Fallen Angel: The Unlikely Rise of Walter Stadnick in the Canadian Hells Angels, by Jerry Langton, Wiley & Sons, 2006
  37. ^ Cops Gone Bad-
  38. ^ Storm Approaching- by Michael Jamison, The Missoulian, July 2000
  39. ^ Ex-Hells Angels official says cops kept out of club- by Adrienne Packer, Las Vegas Review-Journal, October 5, 2006
  40. ^ Laughlin Shootout: Signs told of melee in making- by Glenn Puit and Dave Berns, Las Vegas Review Journal, April 30, 2002
  41. ^ 73 Bikers Arrested- New York Times, March 13, 2002
  42. ^ Hells Angels sue Disney over film-, March 11, 2006. HAMC vs Walt Disney

Books and Newspaper Articles

  • Hayes, Bill. The Original Wild Ones: Tales of The Boozefighters Motorcycle Club, Est. 1946. St. Paul, MN: Motorbooks, 2005.
  • Veno, Arthur, The Mammoth Book of Bikers, Constable & Robinson, 2007 (ISBN 0-7867-2046-8)
  • Vieth, Errol, "Angels in the Media: Constructing Outlaw Motorcyclists", in Consent and Consensus, edited by Denis Cryle and Jean Hiliier, Perth, API Network, 2005, 97–116 (ISBN 1-920845-12-7).
  • Winterhalder, Edward, Out in Bad Standings: Inside the Bandidos Motorcycle Club - The Making of a Worldwide Dynasty, Blockhead City Press, 2005/Seven Locks Press, 2007 (ISBN 0-9771-7470-0)
  • Winterhalder, Edward, & De Clercq, Wil, The Assimilation: Rock Machine Become Bandidos – Bikers United Against the Hells Angels, ECW Press, 2008 (ISBN 1-5502-2824-2)

External links